1. How was the Chinese Communist Party able to carry out the large scale upheaval of the Cultural Revolution? Was it a popular uprising, or was it forced on people by the leaders? Analyze the reason and ways in which the Chinese Communist government controlled the Chinese population, and evaluate their effectiveness.
The CCP was able to carry out the large scale upheaval of the Cultural Revolution due to a massive propaganda campaign and the revolutionary Red Guards, who brought about the changes in implementing communism. Propaganda began in the schools, teaching Chinese children to love Chairman Mao and his policies. Pictures of Mao were placed everywhere, and the media portrayed Mao as a hero who cured cancer and deafness. Propaganda also was in the daily lives of most people, as posters and Mao quotes were everywhere. All members of the communist army had to the the “Little Red Book” which was a book of quotes from Chairman Mao and “Mao” buttons were given to pro-communist citizens. However it was not a popular revolution, as the people were tricked through propaganda and forced into communism by the Red Guards. Chairman Mao enforced this transfer to communism through the Red Guards, who made the public conform with communism, and they also liquidated all political enemies. Through his violent army, Mao was able to successful retain control for a while, however a main idea of the Red Guards was questioning leaders, and this eventually led to mass chaos. Everyone began to rebel against their teachers and bosses, and even Mao came under fire. China fell into chaos as the Red Guards fought against each other and struggled for power. Perhaps Mao’s most successful way to keep power was the propaganda campaign in schools, which made him appear as a hero to the future generations.